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Sodium - Clinical

In this course, you will learn how to investigate cases of hyponatremia based on assessment of the patient’s fluid status and plasma osmolality.

1.0 x AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™
Available on the Pro Plan



In this course, we teach you the importance of measurement of plasma osmolality and assessment of fluid status in guiding the investigation of a patient presenting with hyponatremia. We will take you through case examples which demonstrate the value of this approach in practice.


Planner and Author: Dr John Seery MB PhD

  • Consultant Physician at St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  • Lecturer at the School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Ireland
  • Studied medicine at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • A Natural Sciences graduate of Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • PhD in Cell Biology from University College London, United Kingdom

Planner: Dr Karen Strahan PhD (University of Cambridge), Head of Editorial
Planner: Tommy O'Sullivan, CME Manager

Estimated Time to Complete

1.0 hours

Target Audience

  • Physicians
  • Nurses
  • Nurse Practitioners
  • Physician Assistants
  • Paramedics

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this activity, you will be able to:

  • Explain the pathophysiology of sodium homeostasis in the body
  • Categorize cases of hyponatremia based on patient fluid status and plasma osmolality
  • Appropriately Investigate cases of hyponatremia based on patient clinical history and fluid status

Course Content

  • Introduction
  • Appropriate Hyponatremia
  • Hypoosmolar Hyponatremia
  • Hypervolemic - Part 1
  • Hypervolemic - Part 2
  • Euvolemic
  • Hypovolemic
  • Hyponatremia - Case Examples
  • Quiz
  • Essential Reading

Release date


Expiration date


Instructions for Participation

Participants must complete the online activity during the valid period as noted above.
Follow these steps:

  1. View videos in sequence
  2. Read the papers on the essential reading list
  3. Complete the quiz
  4. Complete the activity evaluation form to provide feedback for continuing education purposes and for the development of future activities
  5. Download the Certificate of Completion

Relevant Financial Disclosures

Acadoodle adheres to the ACCME's Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education. Any individuals in a position to control the content of a CE activity, including faculty, planners, reviewers or others are required to disclose all relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities (commercial interests). All relevant conflicts of interest have been mitigated prior to the commencement of the activity.

Planners and faculty for this activity have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.


Thompson CJ and Crowley RK. Hyponatremia. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2009;39:154-7.

Nagler EV et al. Interventions for chronic non-hypovolaemic hypotonic hyponatremia. Cochrane database Syst Rev. 2018;20(18):CD10965.

Additional Reading

Braun MM et al. Diagnosis and Management of Sodium Disorders: Hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Am Fam Phys. 2015;91(5):299-307.

Hoorn EJ and Zietse Diagnosis and treatment of Hyponatremia: Compilation of the guidelines J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28(5):1340-9.

Spasovski G et al. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia. Nephrol Dial Transpl. 2014;29(2):i1-i39.

ACCME Accreditation Statement

Acadoodle, Ltd is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation Statement

AMA Physician’s Recognition Award

Acadoodle, Ltd designates this enduring material activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

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